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October 1st was world vegetarian day and heralded
the start of international vegetarian week. Most people probably see dietary
requirements and other lifestyle choices when it comes to what we eat as a
relatively new and modern concept. However vegetarianism has deep roots from
ancient world including the Greeks to the National Vegetarian society (Britain)
formed in the nineteenth century. So as you can see it is not new and this
means we can share with you some fascinating insights into the thoughts of WVS
members on vegetarian’s in the 1940s and 1950s.
Extracts from Spinach and Beet – the diary of a centre
TUESDAY. How careful one has to be when wearing uniform: one's
slightest word is taken literally. Among ourselves in the office we have dubbed
as "vegetarians" the members who come to peel vegetables for Meals on
Wheels. ("How many vegetarians are wanted on Thursday?" "We
shall want an extra vegetarian on Tuesday when there's Lancashire hot-pot
"-and so on.) Apparently similar remarks were overheard on a 'bus or
somewhere equally public, as we were telephoned this morning by someone who
wanted to join "The W.V.S. Yes: The Women's Vegetarian Society-such a
splendid idea!" - WVS Bulletin No.118 October 1949 p.7
Friday.-Now that Mrs. Young's small boy attends kindergarten
in the mornings, she is free to help us and to-day she signed an Enrolment
Form. On his first day home from school he said to her excitedly: "Oh Mummy, there are ever so many
foreign children in my class: there's a French boy and a Norwegian, and a
Hungarian and- and a Vegetarian. What country does a Vegetarian come from,
Mummy?” - WVS Bulletin No.1 48 April 1952 p.6
Extract from Nature and other Notes reports for WVS members
A great neurosis about our fauna seems to have swept over England, and even Tothill Street has succumbed! I must admit that the crabs are unprepossessing and the rats not house-trained, but with a little ingenuity and a tin of poison one can avoid having to hob-nob with them.
The rats are not really rats at all. They are large sand-mice called "taboa" (not "jerboa" as appeared in one paper). They are vegetarian and non-disease- carrying. They are incredibly bold, greedy and noisy, and not at all fussy about where they leave their droppings. We have waged chemical warfare against them, and at one stage felt we would have to move. - WVS Buletin No.221 May 1958 p.5
Recipes to try out
Now perhaps you are trying to think of something to eat to
celebrate world vegetarian day, so why not try one of these.
I am sorry about the tripe as I'm pretty sure this is not a veggie option.
Remember it is #AskAnArchivist day on 4th October
with your questions.
It’s interesting what you find when researching for an enquiry even if Lincolnshire and the Women’s Liberation movement are two different things. Finding the Bulletin article below got me thinking about Feminism and WVS/WRVS.
Feminism first appeared in the mid nineteenth century focusing on the promotion of equal contract, marriage, parenting, and property rights for women. It moved on to focus on women’s suffrage and rights which continued into the Twentieth Century. However by the time WVS was founded in 1938 the first wave of feminism had died down; possibly calmed by the role many women played in factories and other traditional men’s roles in World War I and some women obtaining the right to vote in 1918. In my mind WVS/WRVS was never a feminist organisation but a women’s organisation. It never really suited the definition of the ideological and political movement but it was one which used women’s skills to improve the lives of everyone in Britain. During the War WVS took roles in Evacuation, Hospital Supplies, Make do and mend, knitting and many others which used skills traditionally taken on by women in their homes. However some roles such as fire watching had been assigned to the ARP whose reluctance to include women in a way led to the establishment of WVS.
These less traditional roles appeared only to last as long as the War; the re-emergence of Civil Defence in the late 1940s early 1950s didn’t lead to a revival for WVS who took on the Welfare section. Some services they provided were different such as training in what to do if there was a nuclear attack or driving in the Food Flying Squad but they weren’t promoting a political ideology or actively campaigning for women’s rights. In a way WVS did more without having a political cause because they actively changed people’s lives through their actions and gave women a voice through volunteering.
The second wave of feminism came along in the 1970s along with the Women’s Liberation movement campaigning to make women equal to men and give them more control over their lives. WRVS at this time was still striving to make British society a better place for all. The Organisation focused on offering care to those who needed it either on a regular basis or during an emergency. They were also providing children with the opportunity to go on holiday when they might never have got the chance; patients in psychiatric hospitals were also benefiting specially designed canteens/shops to help rehabilitate them in the outside world and those with disabilities were given the chance to progress in the world of work with occupational therapy. However one member must have felt inspired by this new wave as she wrote an article in the WRVS Magazine; though as she says it was an unorthodox contribution.
WRVS Magazine No.377 June 1971
In short although WVS/WRVS wasn’t known for being a feminist or political organisation in its own special and of course unique way it strived to make everyone equal. Today Royal Voluntary Service continues working to help create a society where everyone feels valued and involved whatever their age.
Tomorrow is Shrove Tuesday or as many now refer to it
Pancake Day, in the past this was a day when many Christians prepared to fast
or abstain from rich ingredients used in food such as pancakes. Today there are
plenty of options in the shops from readymade mixes, readymade pancakes or
buying flour and eggs etc. to make them from scratch. However, during World War
II some foods such as eggs were not always as plentiful or they were rationed.
In March 1943
an article was published in the Bulletin to inspire those
celebrating Shrove Tuesday.
VARIATIONS WITH A BATTER: Thanks to "Lease-lend"
we can still make a pre- war batter with real eggs. The dried eggs, whether in
tins or sold loose, as most housewives will now realise, are excellent in all
types of cooking. For batter particularly, they not only increase the food
value, but also help the colour and texture of the mixture.
During the making of the batter, it is essential that all
ingredients are smoothly mixed and well beaten, and success depends on
lightness which is obtained by the introduction of cold air in the beating, and
a high temperature in cooking.
The following are some ideas which the housewife may find
useful in varying the simple foundation batter: Foundation Batter.-4 oz. flour,
1 tablespoon dried egg, 1 oz. dried milk, 1/2- 3/4 pint water. Pinch of salt.
Sieve the flour, salt, egg and milk together, and mix with sufficient water to
make a stiff mixture. Beat well, add rest of water and put aside for one hour.
1. BAKED AS FOR YORKSHIRE PUDDING:
chopped cooked meat, 1/2 lb. sausages, grated cheese and Worcester sauce, 3/4
lb. mixed cooked vegetables, scraps of cooked or tinned fish, plain sweet
batter dredged with sugar before serving, 3 oz. of dried fruit or 1/2 lb. fresh
fruit (dates, prunes, apples, raisins, sultanas), or plain batter served with
syrup, jam or chocolate sauce.
Pancakes.-Stuffed with any of fillings mentioned above, or with fried potato
and pickle or chutney. Served with a sweet or savoury sauce. Rolled or on top
of each with the filling between. Cooked “dry " as for dropped scones
which can be eaten hot stuffed with a filling, or cold spread with butter, or 1
teaspoonful baking powder added to mixture and tablespoonfuls dropped into hot
fat and served with bacon.
Coating.-The liquid reduced to half in the basic recipe and used for coating,
dried fruits (prunes and apples), fresh fruit, slices of cooked vegetable,
croquette mixtures, or small strips of stale cake or bread moistened with
Steaming.-Increase the amount of flour by 1 oz. and use any
of the variations mentioned above.
Note: For a lighter and richer batter add an extra egg and
reduce the amount of liquid equivalent to this. Sugar tends to make a batter
heavy, therefore dredge sweet batters with sugar after cooking.
Of course pancakes aren’t just for this time of year as
demonstrated in this week’s photograph. A WVS Rally at Warmwell Airfield taken on
15/10/1957, where eight WVS members of the Swanage emergency feeding team made
and cooked small pancakes on an improvised hotplate cooker with oven at a WVS
Rally at Warmwell Airfield, Dorset. Two
members cooked the pancakes while others made the batter. On the table is the shield they won when they
came first in the Dorset Emergency Feeding competition.
Enjoy your pancakes!
Another year has come and gone and we now move into 1950 (in the Bulletin
) to take a look at, what was for the WVS, the usual, the unusual but never the mundane. We don't include every story so why not have a look at issue no 121 January 1950 on our archive online.
- A request for a dozen cuddly toys for Polish children was answered by a member who has four small children. A parcel was despatched next day.
- A Home Help, nicknamed the "Pied Piper " because of the many children she looks after, is giving a party for 20 of her past and present charges.
- An aged and garrulous caller caused temporary bewilderment by saying that her daughter, who went to work each day, left her a 'carrisole.' When the old lady said she was learning to cook one herself it was realised that she meant 'Casserole.'
- Every third Friday a tea party is held for all sightless people in the area, numbering between thirty and thirty-six. They come with their guides.
- An 'Open Air School ' to which W.V.S. sent American Seeds, grew a pumpkin weighing 21 lbs. It was 40 inches in circumference.
-During the National Savings Campaign week five W.V.S. members went to the Docks on pay day. They were well received and 36 new members of the National Savings Group were signed up.
- While driving a patient to hospital a Hospital Car Service driver noticed a cow which had just calved. The driver deposited her patient, and returned to find the mother and child still alone looking very cold and forlorn. She called at the farmhouse and informed the farmer, who was most grateful. He said that the event had happened much earlier than was expected and the observation and quick action of W.V.S. had been a godsend.
- An old lady who had been in hospital for 50 years received flowers from the W.V.S. Office, a plant from the Trolley Shop and a basket of fruit from St. Helen's Darby and Joan Club. A call from the same hospital on behalf of an old man who was well enough to go home but could not get the people at his lodgings to bring his clothes, was answered by a member who went and collected them for him.
-The manager of the local cinema has extended an invitation to all Darbys and Joans to attend his cinema, free of charge, on their respective birthdays and wedding anniversaries. An arrangement has also been made by him to collect and return them to their homes by taxi at the cinema's expense. Each member is allowed to take a friend.
- A party of 20 Polish women and 20 children, including 4 babies under 6 months, arrived at Oxford after a long journey from the North of England on the way to Fairford. They had two hours to wait and W.V.S. served them with tea and buns, and supervised washing facilities. The Station Master was helpful, allowing them to use a Church Army Hut in the Station Approaches and arranging with the Refreshment Room to supply tea, milk and hot and cold water. None of the women spoke English but they had no difficulty in conveying their gratitude.
- In three Darby and Joan Clubs, Health Visitors are to be on duty once a month to answer old people's health problems. If anything serious is mentioned they will be advised to go to their Doctor, but the Health Visitor will advise on such troubles as sleepless nights and indigestion.
- W.V.S. asked eight councillors whether they would like to form a rota and be available at the W.V.S. Office once a month to interview members of the public and this was agreed. The local press were notified that the service is available.
Happy New Year from the Royal Voluntary Service Archive & Heritage Collection
More news from around the country, originally these stories were submitted by Centre Organisers on the back of the Narrative Reports and selected by the editors of the Bulletin for publication. These are just a few activities from December 1949.
GLASGOW - The mobile canteen lent by Scottish Headquarters
was taken inside the Customs barrier at the docks for the sailing of the
emigrant ship Cameronia. The canteen operated for many hours, serving not only
those going abroad but also friends who had come to see them off. W.V.S.
escorts at the station were on duty from early morning until late afternoon.
HAMPSHIRE COUNTY - Services Welfare, An ex-regular soldier
of the Indian Army telephoned an urgent request for help. He explained that,
with his family, he was to have embarked for Australia within the next few
days. His wife had that morning been admitted to hospital, could we find
someone to care for the triplets aged 3 years, in order that he could get to
London and cancel all his arrangements with the Emigration Authorities? A
member came to the rescue and undertook the care of the three boys.
HORNCHURCH - This locality is fortunate in having a landmark
in a windmill over 160 years old. Up to 20 years ago it was owned by a baker
who milled his own flour, but it was neglected during the war and has been
falling with slow decay. Now, through the interest of the Ancient Order of
Preservation of Windmills Society and Essex County Council, voluntary workers
go every weekend to restore the windmill to working order. W.V.S. supplies teas
to the volunteers and hopes to make a profit on the transaction. This profit
will become a donation to the Windmill Fund.
NOTTINGHAM C.B - A message was received one day that a young
German boy from Bremen was arriving the next night at Fenchurch Street Station.
Could W.V.S. meet, feed and escort him to the train for Nottingham. London
W.V.S. as always, came to the rescue. The Boat Train was late in arriving;
consequently the Nottingham connection was missed. W.V.S. took the child on a
tour of London, found accommodation for the night and saw him off on the first
train the following morning.
MITCHAM - Dumb Friends League.-W.V.S. have obtained a
regular supply of dog biscuits to be sent through the Dumb Friends League to an
old age pensioner who found it impossible to feed his dog.
RUTLAND COUNTY - The County Organiser walked into the office
one day to be told that she need not worry about the Home Help for Mrs.
So-and-So's baby as it had been cancelled! A Home Help on her first maternity
case told the Organiser when she went along that the family were destitute and
there were no napkins for the baby. A small supply was produced and later one
appeared on the table as a table-cloth. The woman who went in as Home Help came
out as Godmother to the infant.
READING C.B - W.V.S. Children's Specialist in addition to
her other work, devotes Thursday afternoons to the Babies Home at Battle
Hospital and regularly takes the babies out in the large hospital perambulator!
ST. PANCRAS - Fifty-three members from our Kentish Town
Darby and Joan Club were taken by coach one evening to see the “Lights of
Southend." Had tea and cakes at the end of the Pier and arrived home 11.00
WESTON-SUPER-MARE - One afternoon the police rang through to
say that they had two boys aged 15 and 13 at the Station, who had run away from
their home in Bristol on stolen bicycles. They had slept out all night in heavy
rain and were found wandering in Weston soaked through. The police asked
whether we could supply them with clothing. We feel rather proud of the fact
that we fitted them both out with shirts-pants-sports
coats-mackintoshes-pullovers -shoes, and last but not least long trousers.
November 24th will be the last Thursday in the month which in
America means its Thanksgiving. If you don’t know much about this holiday,
apart from what you’ve seen in episodes of Friends and The Big Bang Theory,
don’t worry Issue No.37 of the Bulletin from November 1942 is here to help,
complete with Mock Duck and Mock Goose. If you were looking for a Mock Turkey go
to Issue No.49 November 1943 …
"As we have so many of our American Allies in this country,
many of us are likely to celebrate a festival we have never shared in before.
The first Thanksgiving Day was held by the Pilgrim Fathers to give thanks for
their first harvest, and ever since that time the last Thursday in November has
been celebrated in the United States as a national festival and day of
thanksgiving. Here is a typical Thanksgiving Day menu:
Soup- Tomato and Croutons. Turkey or Chicken or Goose, Mock
Goose, Mock Duck. Cranberry sauce or jelly. Vegetables - Mashed Potatoes;
sprouts; chestnut puree or chestnut stuffing; celery (raw); carrot strips (raw);
salted nuts. Sweet- Pumpkin pie; mince pie; apple pie; biscuits.
Cream of Tomato Soup or Mock Bisque-2 cups raw, canned or
bottled tomatoes; 2 teaspoons sugar; 1/3 tea-spoon bicarbonate of soda ; 1/2
onion, stuck with 6 cloves ; sprig of parsley; bit of bay leaf; 1/2 cup stale
bread-crumbs ; 4 cups milk (household); 1/2 tablespoon salt; 1/8 teaspoon
pepper ; 1/3 cup margarine. Scald milk with bread crumbs, onion, parsley and
bay leaf. Remove seasonings and rub through sieve. Cook tomatoes with sugar 15
minutes (shorter time if canned tomatoes are used). Add soda and rub through
sieve. Reheat bread and milk to boiling-point, add tomatoes, butter, salt and
pepper. Serve 6 to 8.
Mock Goose (Ministry of Food).-1 lb. liver; 2 lb. potatoes;
2 onions or leeks; 1 apple; 3 oz. fat bacon; 1 dessertspoon chopped parsley;
1/2 teaspoon dried sage ; 1/2 pint water; seasoning. Wash liver and cut into
slices. Cut potatoes, onions and apple into slices. Arrange ingredients in
layers in a pie-dish or hot-pot dish. Cover with pieces of bacon. Add water.
Cover with a greased paper and cook in a moderate oven for 1 1/2 to 2 hours.
Mock Duck (Ministry of Food) - Cooking time, 1 hour.
Ingredients-14lb. potatoes; 2 large cooking apples; 3/4 pint vegetable stock ;
1 tablespoon flour; pepper and salt; 4 oz. grated cheese ; 1/2 teaspoon dried
sage. Quantity- 4 helpings.
Method.-Scrub and slice potatoes thinly, slice apples, grate
cheese. Grease a fireproof dish, place a layer of potatoes in it, cover with
apple and a little sage, season lightly and sprinkle with cheese, repeat
layers, leaving potatoes and cheese to cover. Pour in 1/2 pint of the stock,
cook in a moderate oven for 3/4 hour. Blend flour with remainder of stock, pour
into dish and cook for another 1/4 hour. Serve as a main dish with a green
The American “biscuit” is more like a small muffin and is
used at breakfast, dinner or supper. A biscuit like our own is known in America
as a "cracker." American muffins are like our queen cakes in
American Emergency Biscuits (Ministry of Food)-3/4 lb flour;
2 teaspoons baking powder; 2 oz. margarine; 1/2 teaspoon salt; 3/4 cup milk.
Method-Mix flour, baking powder and salt together, cut in margarine;
add milk gradually until a soft dough is formed. Turn out on a floured board
and pat out with the hand to about 1 inch thick. Cut into rounds and bake in
quick oven for 15 minutes."
I haven’t included all the recipes just a selection if you
want to know more visit our online catalogue.
Photo: members of the WVS are providing wartime services for the welfare of American service personnel at a flat in Buckingham Gate, London. In the flat, a number of American service personnel, WVS members and ladies are being entertained by a recital of classical music that is being performed in the flat for them. WRVS/HQ/P/SWH/AMER002 1939-1945.
It's that time of year when a you see a lot of pumpkins in the supermarkets mostly bought and used for decoration, recently in the news I have seen appeals for people not to just throw away the pumpkin flesh they have carved out. So here are some suggestions from the WVS Bulletin using pumpkins.
2 lb. pumpkin
1 1/2 pints " household " milk
2 oz. margarine
sugar to taste.
Peel the pumpkin, cut into dices and put into a saucepan with about 1 pint of water, add a little salt, cook until very tender.
When done, press it through a sieve, add the boiling milk, the fat, some more salt or sugar to taste (sugar preferable if possible). Boil for a few minutes, stirring all the while, and serve. (November 1943)
SAVOURY PUMPKIN PIE
2 lb. pumpkin cut in thin slices
2 lb. tomatoes
1/2 lb. bread (soaked, drained and beaten with a fork)
1/2 lb. minced meat
1 teaspoonful sweet herbs
2 tablespoonfuls melted margarin
salt, pepper and thick brown gravy.
Mix the bread, meat, herbs, salt and pepper to a smooth paste with the melted fat.
Put a layer of pumpkin slices at the bottom of a casserole, or pie-dish, add some tomato and top with pumpkin.
Pour in enough gravy to cover the last layer of pumpkin. Cover with greased paper or a lid and bake in a moderate oven for 1 hour. (November 1943)
Alternatively you could make a sweet pumpkin pie...
1 1/2 cups cooked and strained pumpkin
3 tablespoons sugar
1 tablespoon margarine
2 tablespoons molasses (treacle)
1 teaspoon ginger
1 teaspoon cinnamon
1/2 teaspoon salt
2 eggs (reconstituted dried)
1 1/4 cups scalded milk.
Simmer pumpkin in as little water as possible for 20 minutes.
Add sugar, margarine, treacle, ginger, cinnamon and salt to pumpkin.
Add egg and milk and mix thoroughly.
Line a tin plate or sandwich tin with pastry and pour in pumpkin mixture and bake in a brisk oven. It is usual not to cover this mixture with another layer of pastry. (November 1942)
Lets take a trip back in time to this month 67 years ago where the WVS are very busy all over the country and sending in stories to the Bulletin mainly concerning unusual requests, their members and a very active Darby and Joan. Its time for the News Flashes from October 1949.
.- Many odd queries. A Polish woman from the Russian Zone of Germany asked W.V.S. to trace her husband whom she last saw before the 1914-1918 war and who sent his last letter from Philadelphia in 1919!
.- When the Meals on Wheels van broke down recently The Yorkshire Evening News loaned a van and driver. On another occasion the proprietor of a local ice cream business used his luggage brake and drove the car himself so that the old people were supplied as usual with their hot meal.
.- A request for hats came from the hospital. The " Old Folk " were going to Margate and had nothing to protect their heads from the sun. Could we help ? We have a cupboard where W.V.S. store everything and anything unnamed, and which we call " The Lost Paradise." We managed to unearth twelve very ancient and tired-looking specimens, but strange to say, fashionable now. Bought bunches of artificial flowers from a local sale to trim them, also two more felt hats at 1/- each, making a total of fourteen. They were cleaned, brushed and reshaped and sent to the hospital that very same afternoon, also three for the men.
.- Gifts of nightdresses and a dressing gown, sent into the Office in response to the Clothing Appeal, seemed providential as they were passed immediately on to a needy " Joan " who had to be rushed into hospital to undergo an operation.
.- W.V.S. staffed the Information Tent at the County Agricultural Show and afterwards provided a splendid canteen for the workmen who dismantled the stands. The men appreciated this service enormously and their only complaint was that W.V.S. had not provided a canteen for them when they erected the stands!
.- At a Carnival held in Neyland (Pembs.) recently a lorry was arranged to represent the Neyland Darby and Joan Club. Children were dressed to represent the Darbies and Joans and the W.V.S. helpers. A table was set for tea and at another Darbies were playing dominoes. This lorry gained 3rd prize.
.- Troops in transit have made full use of the Britannia Club. On three occasions the Club was opened at 7.30 a.m. for the benefit of men given shore leave. One day it was almost crowded out by a seething mass of troops in jungle green. When naval vessels were here on a four days visit large numbers of the ship's personnel were in the Club, taking part in the various tournaments and attending the dances, which they appeared to enjoy tremendously. We were delighted to receive four parcels of magazines from Ardler, Burnley, Dunkeld and Headquarters (Technical magazines). Last, but certainly not least, six parcels from Eastbourne W.V.S., who also very kindly sent a grand parcel of sheet music and song books, which were greatly appreciated by our band.
.- A member offered to make 200 cakes for a Garden Party given in aid of the local Animal Clinic. This was in answer to an appeal by Brighton Centre.
.- A Darby aged 58 cycles 1 1/2 miles weekly from outlying village of Allerthorpe to attend the recently opened Darby and Joan Club.
The front cover of this month's Bulletin reported "A plan for supplementing rations of farm workers is under trial by the Ministry of Food with the aid of W.V.S., Ipswich. Meat and cheese sandwiches and cakes are collected from a depot in the town and taken by W.V.S. to the fields. Workers pay on delivery and give orders for the next round. These farm workers seem well pleased with their cellophane-wrapped test meals."
Hence the Headline in this weeks image "Packed Meals for Thatchers".
Tomorrow is Roald Dahl Day, celebrating the birthday of world’s greatest story teller who also wrote Revolting Recipes so this week we thought we would share some wonderful WVS recipes from September 1949.
Rice, is a good meal extender but do see it is properly cooked. A most enjoyable breakfast dish is Rice and Grilled Sausage. Then there are soups, infinite in variety-and thick soups particularly come into their own at this time of year. Here are suggestions for current menus :
FRENCH LENTIL SOUP
1/2 lb. Lentils 1 tin Tomatoes
1 Onion Piece of Margarine
Pepper and Salt Parsley, chopped
Soak lentils overnight. Put quarter of water and lentils on to boil for 1/2 hour. Add tomatoes and onion and boil for further 1 1/2 hours. Take off and strain. Cook for further 10 minutes. Season to taste and garnish with chopped parsley. Croutons of bread dipped in soup and crisped in the oven make a delicious accompaniment.
Stew 2 pints of blackberries and 1/2 lb. brown sugar. Line a pudding basin with thick slices of stale brown bread, crusts removed. Pour in stewed blackberries and cover with bread, then greaseproof paper. Steam for 2 hours. Turn out next day and eat with squeezed lemon.-Cream if you have it.
And for the SPECIAL Occasion
Cook sufficient spinach in its own juice with the addition of just a little butter. When cooked, chop finely, moisten with lemon juice and sharpen up with a little chopped onion and chopped celery. Press into a 1 pint mould which has been buttered and let it get quite cold. Bone a tin of sardines, soak in lemon juice and sprinkle on a little red pepper. Stand the sardines on their heads around the de-moulded spinach and you have an ideal supper dish.
In this month one member even wrote in to provide her own recipe advice, I wonder if Charlie Bucket and Willy Wonka would have liked this one.
I am shocked by the recipe for Chocolate Fudge in the July number. The idea of putting in a whole tin of household milk is horrifying and so unnecessary. I append my own very simple recipe which makes a good fudge.
8 ozs. sugar. 1/2 to 3/4 oz. of chocolate according to taste. Milk enough to mix to a thin paste (about a teacupful). Heat till sugar is dissolved; then boil for 7 or 8 minutes, till a little put in cold water hardens. Remove from fire and beat in vanilla or almond flavouring and any margarine available (about 1/2 oz.-to 1 oz.). Pour on to buttered plates when thick.
We have submitted this letter to are Food Specialist who replies that some mothers say that they find it difficult to get children to take dried milk in liquid form, but that no child refuses a second piece of fudge.
For the benefit of those who Can get fresh milk, but not dried milk, we have printed this recipe for chocolate fudge.